Inverted nipples occur due to the fact that lactiferous ducts are too short and do not allow nipple to protrude normally.
Grade 1: The inverted nipples come out fairly easily by applying little coercion or by gentle manipulation.
Grade 2: The inverted nipples are able to be pulled out but go back as soon as they are released.
Grade 3: The inverted nipples are not able to be pulled out.
These are different operations described to deal with inverted nipples depending on their grade. Depending on whether a woman is of child bearing age and would like to breast feed or if she is considering bearing children different operations are considered.
Grade 1: A form of nipple piercing that needs to be worn for 3 months. This stitches the ducts over that form and this corrects the inverted nipple. This is good for grade 1 or 2 inverted nipples.
Grade 2: An operation with a small scar at the base of the nipple. The ducts are teased out to try and stretch the scored ducts. A purse string is used to stop the nipple from drawing back in again. This operation is good for grade 1 or 2 inverted nipples.
Grade 3: An operation the same as described in grade 2 above except the ducts are divided. This is for people who are not concerned about breast feeding.
This is usually recommended for grade 3 inverted nipples but can also be done for grade 1 and 2. The reinversion rate for 3 operation is the lowest of all three techniques.
All of these operations can be performed under local anaesthetic in my rooms or in a day surgery centre. The results are a better appearing nipple with minimal scars.